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This study attempts to examine the situations of orphans in the time of enlightenment, the change of awareness for the relief for orphans, and the methods for the relief for orphans by the various agents. For that purpose, I refer to the catholic sources, the protestant sources, the official documents by government and newspapers. In the traditional period, orphans were aided by the temporary relief of government and private fostering. The main purpose of these relief was providing the necessaries of life as food, clothing and shelter. In the time of enlightenment, especially the late 1890s, the relief for orphans in Korea changed by the introduction of the protective facilities which were the methods for the relief for orphans in the west, the change of awareness in which orphans should be educated to be ‘useful citizens’ and continuous press contribution in which the degree of charity for vulnerable members of society was the criterion for civilized county. The features of the relief for orphans in the time of enlightenment are as follows. 1) The orphanage which was the protective facility for orphans established in Korea. For the first time, the catholic orphanage was established in 1885. From the late 1890s, Christian organizations and individuals founded orphanages. From 1905, Japanese and Korean also founded orphanages. By these procedures it was possible to take care of orphans at all times. 2) In orphanage, orphans received basic education and learned skills in accordance with their age and gender. They could achieve self-reliance when they reached adulthood. Orphans in the orphanage were made to take part in the external occasions and showed that they were changed and to be good models. By these procedures, orphans were accepted as the members of society and the social role of orphanage was recognized positively. 3) People of various social stratum had interest in the orphanage more. They aided orphanages by donation, charity performances and the foundation of charitable institutions. They also offered medical service for the health of orphans.