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사회가 발전하면서 소비자들은 다양한 위험에 직면하게 되었는데 건강한 삶은 안전한 먹거리에서 출발한다고 할 수 있다. 하지만 근래에 들어 식품안전에 대한 문제점들이 수시로 발생하고 있으며 유통과정이 선진화 되었다고 믿고 소비했던 식품들에서도 안전성에 문제가 있음이 보고되고 있다. 이에 소비자들의 식품안전에 대한 요구는 점점 높아져 가고 있는 실정이다. 본 연구는 우리사회의 식품안전 수준을 객관적이고 총체적으로 파악하기 위하여 표준화된 소비자의 식품안전 체감 및 역량 척도를 개발하여 식품안전사회 구현에 기여하고자 한다. 이를 위하여 국내외문헌조사를 바탕으로 연구의 이론적 틀을 마련하고 측정도구를 수집한 후, 전문가 자문과 델파이조사를 수행함으로써 척도의 타당성을 확보하였다. 다음으로, 수정된 척도는 재조사법(test-retest)을 통하여 데이터를 수집한 뒤 변별력테스트, 상관관계분석, 신뢰도분석, 탐색적 요인분석, 확인적 요인분석을 통해 척도의 신뢰성을 확보하고 타당성을 검증하였다. 연구결과 식품안전체감 척도는 전반적 식품안전도, 식품생산․유통․제공안전도, 식품위해우려도, 식품별 불안도, 식품표시신뢰도의 5가지 하위 차원의 총 35개 문항으로 구성되었으며, 식품안전역량 척도는 식품안전에 대한 지식, 기능, 태도의 3가지 차원의 총 35개 문항으로 구성되었다. 본 연구를 통해 개발된 소비자의 식품안전 체감 및 역량 척도는 그 사회의 식품안전 수준을 파악하고, 소비자의 식품안전요구를 조사함으로써 식품안전정책과 행정에 도움을 줄 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 차후 이들 척도를 바탕으로 식품안전지향성을 지수화 하고, 시계열적으로 조사를 실시한다면 변화하는 소비자의 요구를 파악하고 미래소비자들의 요구를 추정함으로써 보다 안정적으로 식품안전사회시스템을 구축하는데 기여할 수 있을 것이다.


Today's consumers confront various risks in everyday life and safety issues related to food becomes one of the major issues for consumers as food-borne illnesses and diseases increases. Since 2000, Korean consumers have had great interests in well-being and among the various aspects of well-being, physical and psychological well-being have been in the major focus of consumer lifestyle. As such consumers' interests with food safety have been dramatically increased and leaded dramatic growth in organic food industry. Recently, many food-related scandals and accidents have occurred and these scandals heighten consumers' needs for better food safety. To gauge a society's overall level of food safety, a comprehensive approach should be adopted. So far in the literature food safety has been studied with limited scope and coverage. Consumers' food safety orientation includes two distinct components: perceived food safety and food safety competency. Consumers' perceived food safety is a key component to gauge consumers' food safety orientation because it relates to consumers' basic attitudes about food issue. However, without proper knowledge and practice consumers' could not enjoy desirable level of food safety therefore, consumers' competency is also very important. Consumers' perceived food safety refers to the level of consumers perception about food safety and it includes consumers' awareness and evaluation about food issues. Previous research on perceived food safety have examined about five subject areas of food safety issues: consumers general perception about food safety, food safety issues with production and retailing, food safety policy and administration, food safety information and education, food labeling issues, and food safety concerns. Consumers' food safety competency refers to the knowledge, attitudes, and practice to manage food related task to achieve desired levels of food safety. Consumers' food safety competency sub-constructs (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, and practice) have been studies with various consumer groups on several food categories. The purpose of this research was to develop consumers' perceived food safety measurement and food safety competency measurement to properly gauge consumers' food safety orientation of a society. The measurement will be used to further develop an index of consumer food safety orientation. To develop consumers' perceived food safety measurement and food safety competency measurement, this research utilized expert reviews, delphi study, and test-retest analyses. First, a list of sample measurement items were gathered based on a comprehensive literature review. Specifically total of 54 questions in eight sub-constructs of perceived food safety were selected from literature to get experts review. The eight sub-constructs include overall food safety perception, food production safety, food safety policy and administration, food safety information, food safety threats, food safety concerns, trustworthiness of food labeling, and food safety education. For candidates of food safety competency measurement, total of 49 questions on food safety knowledge, food safety significance, safe cooking procedure, hand washing methods in handling food, interests in food safety, food safety threats, food purchasing behavior, food safety education, and concerns about food safety were selected. These questions were sent to three experts in the area to initial reviews and evaluation. Based on the experts' review each measurement sub-constructs were reorganized. Three sub- constructs(food safety policy and administration, food safety information and food safety education) from the perceived food safety have been deleted and several individual questions have been modified before the Delphi study. From the initial list of food safety competency, a new and different sub-constructs of knowledge, attitudes, and practice were formed and forwarded to the Delphi study. The Delphi study was conducted with 19 experts in the fields and the two measurements were reviewed, modified, and reorganized. Total of 35 questions in 5 sub-constructs for perceived food safety and 35 questions in 3 sub-constructs for food safety components were included in a consumer questionnaire for test, re-test reliability test. Consumer data was gathered through online survey from 300 participants with 1 week time span between test and re-test. The survey data was analyzed using correlation test, reliability test, exploratory factor analyses, and confirmatory factor analyses. Further modifications of the measurement were applied to the measurement based on the reliability and correlation tests. The factor analyses results showed desirable levels of reliability and validity of the measurement. The final measurement of perceived food safety includes 35 questions on five sub- constructs of overall food safety perception, safety in food production and retailing, food safety threats, concerns with food safety, and trustworthiness of food labeling. The final measurement of food safety competency includes 35 questions on consumer knowledge, attitudes, and practices on food safety. The food safety practice includes examination on food condition, examination on food labeling, general food safety behavior, and food purchase behavior. The measurements that were developed from this research showed proper levels of validity and reliability. Therefore, these measurements can be used to gauge a society's level of consumer food safety orientation. Further development on food safety orientation index will be useful to push forward to better level of food safety and increased levels of consumer well-being.