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중소 건설기업이 해외시장에서 수주한 금액은 2007년 67억 달러, 2008년 72억 달러로 정점에 이르렀다가 2009년 55억 달러, 2010년 47억 달러, 그리고 2011년 48억 달러로 감소 또는 정체되고 있는 실정이다. 이에 따라 중소기업의 해외건설 진출을 활성화하기 위한 정부의 지원정책이 요구되고 있는 시점이다. 해외 건설시장에서 금융이 수주 경쟁력의 주요 요소로 작용하고 있으나, 우리나라 중소기업은 여전히 자금동원 능력 또는 금융기관에서 보증서 발급이 어려워 해외시장 진출에 어려움을 겪고 있는 것으로 알려지고 있다. 따라서 건설 관련 공제조합이 해외건설 보증에 적극 참여할 필요가 있다. 무엇보다도 중소기업의 해외건설 보증을 확대하기 위해서는 건설공제조합과 전문건설공제조합이 적극적으로 해외건설 보증업무를 수행해야 하고, 한국수출입은행이 중소기업에 대한 보증을 확대하여야 한다. 나아가 건설공제조합이 외국환 업무를 취급할 수 있도록 외국환거래법과 그 시행령이 개정되어야 중소건설기업의 해외시장 진출에 법적 장애가 제거될 것이다. 본고는 최근 우리나라 건설기업들의 해외수주 특징과 문제점을 분석하였다. 우선 최근 우리 건설기업들의 해외수주의 특징과 문제점을 분석하였으며 특히 중소건설 기업의 해외시장 진출 지원제도 현황 및 문제점을 지적하고 개선방안을 논의하였다. 또한 중소건설 기업을 위한 해외정책금융 개선 방안으로서 해외건설공사를 위한 자금조달(금융) 방식, 한국수출입은행의 지원 확대방안, 수출보험 확대방안, 보증제도 개선 방안, 외국환거래법 시행령 개정 필요를 논의하였다. 그리고 중소건설 기업의 해외시장 진출 활성화를 위한 제언으로서 기업 전략적인 측면, 정부 지원제도 측면, 해외 건설사업 보증, 사업성평가 전문기관 신설, 해외 건설사업 관련 지원을 위한 정부부처 업무통합 필요성 등을 역설하였다.


In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc. In general, all overseas construction projects include some elements in common–design, financial, estimating and legal considerations. Overseas construction projects can suffer from preventable financial problems. Underbids ask for too little money to complete the project. Cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding cannot cover the current costs for labor and materials, and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time, can arise even when the overall total is enough. Financial planning for the overseas project is intended to ensure that a solid plan with adequate safeguards and contingency plans are in place before the project is started and is required to ensure that the plan is properly executed over the life of the project. Large overseas construction projects can involve highly complex financial plans and often start with a conceptual estimate performed by an estimator. As portions of a project are completed, they may be sold, supplanting one lender or owner for another, while the logistical requirements of having the right trades and materials available for each stage of the overseas construction project carries forward. An overseas construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations, each of which must be carefully considered. A contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties, but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible. The time element in construction means that a delay costs money, and in cases of bottlenecks, the delay can be extremely expensive. Thus, the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out. Overseas construction contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly, whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse. Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap and interrelate. The design must be not only structurally sound and appropriate for the use and location, but must also be financially possible to build, and legal to use. The financial structure including financial guarantee must accommodate the need for construction the design provided, and must pay amounts that are legally owed. The focus on co-operation is to ameliorate the many problems that arise from the often highly competitive and adversarial practices within the overseas construction industry. In this article I argued why the Foreign Exchange Transactions Act should be revised and proposed government should be incorporated the Overseas Construction Public Corporation to support small and medium sized companies successful bidding, launching, performing, and completing the overseas construction project.