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The Lingnan School of painting was formed in the late 19th century in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. Guangzhou had been China’s only open port since 1757, and contained a large number of Western merchants, artists and bureaucrats. Guangzhou traded most frequently with Britain, which at the time had a mania for collecting Chinese plants amid ongoing developments in botany and horticulture. In response to demand from British botanists, British merchants in Guangzhou collected rare Chinese plants and got Chinese artists to paint them, then sent the paintings on merchant ships to Britain. These pictures portrayed plants, insects and birds of the Guangdong Region. Based on copperplate prints brought by Western merchants from their home countries, Chinese artists in Guangzhou depicted plants and insects in a Western painting style with added details and emphasized three-dimensional effects. These paintings, produced for foreigners with reference to Western painting techniques, were called “export paintings.”Export paintings were produced in the greatest quantities from the mid-19th to the early 20th century, when artists Ju Chao (居巢) and Ju Lian (居廉) were active. The fact that Ju Chao and Ju Lian enjoyed painting the plants and insects of the Guangdong region, and the realistic, sketch-like styles of their paintings, clearly show a correlation with export plant paintings produced in Guangzhou. In the late 19th century, under the influence of the Westernization Movement, Western natural sciences were introduced both in terms of academia and education. Western books were translated into Chinese and botany lectures were delivered in educational institutions. Gao Jian-fu studied Western science and technology at a naval academy (水師學堂) and natural science academy (格致書院). After going to study in Japan, he sketched insect specimens at entomological research institutes, stuffed birds in museums, and plants in botanical gardens and parks. Japanese Sketches, produced by Gao during his period abroad, simultaneously demonstrated the natural historical knowledge he had acquired while in China and influence from Japanese natural historical drawings, as seen in the works of the Maruyama School.