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Zou Yi Gui (鄒一桂, 1686-1772) was a scholar-official and court painter during the reigns of emperors Yongzheng and Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. Zou was one of the leading painters of the flower-and-plant genre. His book, Xiaoshan Huapu (小山畵譜; Painting Catalogue of Xiaoshan), dealt solely with flower-and-plant painting. It covers all matters related to the genre, not only discussing theory but mentioning and providing annotations on the varieties of plants depicted and existing flower-and-plant painting theory, and offering detailed guidelines on aspects of painting itself, such as techniques and materials. Zou placed greater emphasis on “form-likeness (形似)” in his flower-andplant paintings, and believed that capturing the form of a subject in a picture would also capture its spirit. Zou stressed that detailed observation and an empirical attitude were needed in order to achieve this; when discussing methods for observing subjects and transferring them to paintings, he used terms such as “Eight Methods (八法)” and “Four Knowledges (四知).” Some chapters, meanwhile, such as “Distinguishing each type of flower (各花分別)” and “Catalogue of Chrysanthemums (洋菊譜),” list types of plant and provide detailed records of their ecology and characteristics in a manner similar to the natural-historical pulu (譜錄) genre of texts that was popular at the time. Zou’s theories of painting thus reflect not only the tendencies of scholar-officials in the Qing Dynasty, but also those of flower-and-plant paintings and court paintings of his era.