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Joseon era artworks depicting peonies came both in the form of bird-andflower paintings and screens for ceremonial use. They were widely used as objects for decoration and appreciation. The peony, a popular artistic motif in China and Joseon, has also been given names such as “the king of flowers” (花王) and “picture of prosperity and noblesse” (富貴畵) because of its large flowers and bright colors. Peony-themed paintings can be broadly divided into bird-and-flower paintings and peony screens, which are categorized as decorative paintings. Remaining Joseon era peony screens are nearly all peony paintings that can be categorized as decorative court paintings, and folk paintings of peonies, dating from the late-19th to early-20th century. This study will examine the characteristics, preservation process and production period of a 10-fold peony screen from the collection of the National Museum of Korea, which was first revealed to the public in 2010. This screen possesses characteristics quite distinct from extant peony screens that can be categorized as late-19th century or beyond, thus providing important implications regarding the history and development process of Joseon era peony painting. Judging by the size, skillful rendition and splendid colors of the 10-fold peony screen, it is highly probable that it was used by royalty. Despite their floral motif and bright colors, it is known that peony screens were frequently produced and used by Joseon royalty in ceremonies related to funerals, the transferring of royal tombs, and the conferring of posthumous titles. When compared to extant peony screens thought to have been used by royalty, which feature methodical designs in which the same peony appears on each section, the 10-fold peony screen is notable for the way it features one single scene that continues across all 10 folds. Rather than featuring formal, round backgrounds, moreover, it shows peony flowers and oddly-shaped stones of various forms and colors in a comparatively natural setting of hills, a meadow, a stream, a meadow again and then a stream again. This suggests that the 10-fold screen was produced in the early 19th century, earlier than other extant peony screens. An important record regarding the time at which this screen was produced is the name of an early 19th century figure written on a piece of paper that was stuck to the back of the screen. This provides further confirmation of the painting’s date of production. The paper contains the Chinese characters 啓功郞行司諫院正言 臣 李冕植 (Gyegongnang haeng Saganwon Jeongeon sin Lee Myeon-sik). Lee Myeon-sik was an official in the Saganwon (Office of Censors), and was mentioned six times in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, between March 1, 1822 (the 22nd year of the reign of King Sunjo) and August 20, 1827. The writing allows us to establish that the screen was painted no earlier than the period during which Lee held the rank of jeongeon: 1822-1827. This screen is very important in the context of Joseon era peony screens, as it shows us the style of such screens prior to the period from which most extant works ― with schematic and somewhat rigid designs ― date. In future, further examination of uigwe documents (royal protocols of the Joseon Dynasty) will enable analysis of the production of 17th to early-19th century peony screens.