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We made a study on real-time determination method for relative position using the laser-measured distance data between satellites. We numerically performed the determination of relative position in accordance with extended Kalman filter algorithm using the vectors obtained through nonlinear equation of relative motion, laser simulator for distance measurement, and attitude determination of chief satellite. Because the spherical parameters of relative distance and direction are used, there occur some changes in precision depending on changes in relative distance when determining the relative position. As a result of simulation, it was possible to determine the relative position with several millimeter-level errors at a distance of 10 km, and sub-millimeter level errors at a distance of 1 km. In addition, we performed the determination of relative position assuming the case that global positioning system data was not received for long hours to see the impact of determination of chief satellite orbit on the determination of relative position. The determination of precise relative position at a long distance carried out in this study can be used for scientific mission using the satellite formation flying.