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국내 중소 제조 기업은 장기적인 저 생산성 구조를 벗어나지 못하고 있어 요소투입 주도형에서 생산성 주도형으로 성장 전략을 혁신해야 하는 상황이다. 이와 같이 중소기업이 생산성 주도 성장을 하기 위해 생산성 경영시스템 관점에서 지속적으로 기업구조를 혁신해야 한다. 본 논문은 한국생산성본부가 개발한 생산성 경영시스템 진단 모델을 기반으로 중소기업의 생산성 경영성과에 영향을 주는 핵심적인 역량을 규명하고자 한다. 6개의 범주, 19개의 핵심프로세스와 생산성 경영성과로 구성되어 있는 생산성 경영시스템 진단 모델은 심사원이 현장 실사를 통해 중소기업의 생산성 성과를 진단하도록 설계되어 있다. 본 논문은 자동차부품 중소기업 50개를 직접 현장 진단 한 연구 결과이다. 실증 연구결과 자동차 부품 중소기업의 생산성 경영시스템의 수준은 243점으로 중소기업 평균 295점 보다 낮게 나타났다. 리더십은 전체적인 범주에 모두 영향을 주고 있는 것으로 확인이 되었으며, 생산성 경영성과는 유의한 인자가 없었으나, 현장진단 결과 우수 중소기업은 끊임없는 생산성향상 활동으로 생산시스템의 탁월성을 확보하고 있었다. 진단 이후 중소기업의 86%가 리더십 범주에 해당하는 과제를 선정하여 실행하고 있는 것에서 시사점이 있다고 볼 수 있다. 본 논문은 중소기업이 생산성주도의 혁신을 하기 위하여 어떠한 핵심프로세스에 집중하고, 개선해야 하는지를 제시해주고 있다.


In the wake of the global financial crisis, an equation that sounds convincing is that competitiveness of SMEs is that of Korean enterprises. Still, in terms of productivity, Korea lags behind the U.S. and Japan by 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. Further, productivity in SMEs amounts to 32.4% of that in of large enterprises. As for contributions to TFP (total factor productivity), the U.S. and Japan are higher than Korea by 5.7 and 2.4 times, respectively. Those figures suggest that domestic productivity is characterized by growth still dependent on traditional factor inputs. Given the fact, Korean manufacturers should be transformed to productivity-led from input-led growth structures. As a fundamental cause, there is a substantial consensus that Korean companies hardly have established advanced business management systems driving productivity-led growth. The government and relevant organizations supporting small and medium enterprises (SMEs) focus on continuous changes in corporate structures from the perspective of business management systems and productivity-led growth. The present study categorized productivity management system models into four aspects: leadership, productivity development, value realization (customer and market management, human resource management, process operation) and performance measurement to identify the most salient property of productivity management system models, that is, to find out the “core processes significantly influencing productivity performance." Briefly put, the present thesis is to investigate core competencies influencing productivity performance in SMEs by means of an empirical study. Based on SME productivity management system models to build a productivity system as set out in the Article 30 in the Industrial Development Act, 50 SMEs in the field of the auto parts industry were chosen from January to June in 2010 to diagnose productivity management systems. As part of the productivity management system diagnosis, six core process categories and 19 core processes were examined to determine their influences on productivity management performance through direct on-site surveys. First, auto part SMEs have lower level of productivity management systems compared to the electricity and electronics sector. The diagnostic score of productivity management systems in auto part SMEs was 243 on average, which corresponds to approximately 80% of the previous average score (295) in electricity and electronics SMEs. Categorically, leadership and process categories showed over 100-point differences, and auto part SMEs were found low in strategic accessibility and process complexity. The distribution of categorical scores indicates that production operation (299), quality control (297) and strengthening customer relations (285) are relatively higher and that employee's learning growth (171), knowledge and information management (179) and strategic planning (182) earned lower marks. The diagnostic finding confirms that business operation in small and medium enterprises targets customer relations, production operation and quality control. Second, the analysis found that leadership influences every category. Based on the proposed study model, leadership was found to affect productivity, customer market, measurement analysis, human resource and process. Further, the verification of the consequence hypothesis on productivity management performance on the basis of the estimation in the structural equation found that leadership is significant in overall categories, which agrees with the hypothesis. The field diagnosis of firms confirmed that top management in small and medium businesses is unequivocally concerned about productivity improvement actions and core workforce operations. Unlike general expectations, it was reconfirmed that top management pays less attention to customers and process control than to leadership that efficiently drives such factors. Third, no significant factor was found influencing productivity management performance. This warrants further analysis with more extensive samples in the future. In the field diagnosis, the interviews with a number of small and medium enterprises found that productivity management performance requires consistent actions for productivity improvement at the management level, and that such actions contribute to excellence in the production system. Based on the diagnosis of the productivity management system, financial goals and maturity in the productivity management system were set to propose innovation challenges to achieve such goals. The selected innovation challenges were divided into each type of challenges SMEs would pursue and the win-win ones parent companies wished to improve. 86% of SMEs wanted to build a leadership-associated management system such as business goal setting and development, performance system establishment, business administration planning and vision strategy system implementation. Such challenges selected, as seen from the analysis abovementioned, can be translated as significant influences of leadership on every category. The win-win challenges on the side of parent companies were entirely related to product quality, delivery and cost improvement. Although both sides wanted to achieve goals, their solutions indicated that suppliers and parent companies would take different approaches. Parent companies of suppliers were grouped and final results were reported to the parent companies including the following suggestions for suppliers:First, structural adjustment in products and logistics is required to enhance competitiveness of suppliers. For seamless demand and supply flows, parent companies tend to segment suppliers into dual or triple parts, leaving suppliers less competitive in production and supply. In sum, supply module units should be kept with 2 exclusive suppliers, who are to achieve cost competitiveness, while parent companies can keep quality and demand and supply uninterrupted. Second, technical support from parent companies is required for early quality stabilization of new developments. Auto parts suppliers earn revenues through OEM development, and stabilization in early stages of development controls revenues. As such, development engineers need to provide technical support for each supplier in early stages of development, and some effort needs be made to find common ground between parent companies and suppliers on key issues. Particularly, suppliers often have a hard time coping with incompatible gauges, measuring tools and work processes with parent companies in early stages of development. Third, consistent and further support for suppliers is needed. The global financial crisis has caused overall support programs for suppliers to grind to a halt, hence support programs for suppliers should be resumed and sustained. In addition, support programs must include funds to help suppliers. Suppliers in the auto parts industry have fragile financial structures, and they must buy raw materials with cash while their revenues depend on conventional payment terms and conditions. For that reason, auto part suppliers are faced with vulnerable cash flows and highly disagreeable ratio of net profits to net sales compared to other industries. Hence, a fund to help suppliers with urgent cash flow problems is a must. The present study deals with SMEs in the auto parts industry. Future studies need extended sample sizes of SMEs to analyze overall flow and further to delve into key processes necessary for SMEs to grow into middle-sized companies. The findings in this study implicate what processes need focusing on to improve productivity through auto parts SMEs. This paper suggests which core process SMEs should concentrate on and make improvements on in order to make productivity-driven innovation.