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Purpose: This paper compares practical first aid training and theoretical first aid training in elementary schools. Methods: Research subjects were randomly selected and sorted into experimental and control groups. The former is one class (28 students) of the fifth grade students, and the latter is another class (30 students). In order to verify the effect of first aid training, we conducted theoretical as well as practical first-aid instruction about foreign body airway obstruction to the experimental group, but conducted only theoretical instruction with the control group. Data were analyzed by the x2-test and t-test, one-way using the SPSS / win 12.0 program. The results were as follows (p=.05). Results: The first hypothesis was that the knowledge of an experimental group would be better than that of a control group. The analysis showed a significant difference (p=.000) between the two groups, supporting this hypothesis. The second hypothesis was that the experimental group would be more accurate than the control group. There was no because of (p=.000) between the two groups on this measure. The third hypothesis, that the two groups would vary over time on the measure of accuracy, was supported by the following observations:the experimental results were accumulated before, two days after and two weeks after the training (experimental group, p=.000, and control group, p=.000). This supports the third hypothesis that the technical performance accuracy levels of complete respiratory obstruction first aid vary over time. Conclusion: First aid training has to include practical education as well as theoretical education in the future, as part of a school’s health education for elementary students. Health education classrooms should be prepared to teach first-aid theory and be supplied with equipment for practical exercises. Schools, communities, and private organizations need to carry out the practical education component periodically.