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Incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide delay gastric emptying, increasing satiety, and enhance insulin secretion. Two new classes of treatments related to incretin hormones for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus have emerged: GLP-1 receptor agonists (e.g., exenatide,liraglutide) and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (e.g., sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin), which prevent the degradation of GLP-1. A MEDLINE search was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of incretin-based therapies and publications were reviewed. Data from clinical trials indicated incretin-based treatment showed clinically significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c with low risk of hypoglycemia. Weight reductions were observed with GLP-1 receptor agonists where as DPP-4 inhibitors are weight neutral.