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The family of bile acids belongs to a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with very peculiar biological characteristics. They are synthesized by the liver from cholesterol through several complementary pathways and secreted into small intestine for the participation in the digestion and absorption of fat. The bile acids are mostly confined to the territories of the so-called enterohepatic circulation, which includes the liver, the biliary tree, the intestine and the portal blood with which bile acids are returned to the liver. In patients with bile acid malabsorption, the amount of primary bile acids in the colon is increased compared to healthy controls. Although the increase in the secondary bile acids including deoxycholic acid, is reported to have the potency to affect tumorigenesis in gastrointestinal tracts, there is no firm evidence that clinically relevant concentrations of the bile acids induce cancer. The list of their physiological roles,as well as that of the pathological processes is long and still not complete. There is no doubt that many new concepts,pharmaceutical tools and pharmacological uses of bile acids and their derivatives will emerge in the near future.