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일제하 조선의 위생행정은 일본을 통해 이식된 위생경찰제도로 특징지워지지만, 일본과는 달리 독립적 위생행정기구가 없이 경찰에 의해 위생행정이 독점되었고, 훨씬 더 억압적인 방식으로 운영되었다. 이 글에서는 이를 식민지 위생경찰로 개념화하고, 이의 제도화가 1905년 이후 진행된 경찰권 박탈을 매개로 한 식민지화과정에서 배태되었다는 점을 밝힌다. 3.1운동에 의해 무단통치로부터 문화정치로 이행하는 과정에서 조선총독부는 독립적인 위생행정기구를 설치할 것을 고려하였으나, 결국 그대로 경무국 안에 위치시켰다. 식민지 위생경찰의 활동은 전염병 예방이나 방역에 기초하여 만들어진 검역과 주기적인 청결조사, 검병 호구조사 등에 기초하였으며, 식민지 통치성을 구성하는 유력한 장치의 하나였다. 전시하에서 위생경찰은 건민운동과 후생 패러다임에 영향을 받았으나 일본과는 달리 조선에서는 단지 1년간 후생국이 설치 운영되었다. 통제중심적인 식민지 위생경찰의 유산은 미군정기에 약화되었으나 한국전쟁으로 다시 재생하여 1950년대 한국의 위생행정에서 지속적인 영향을 미쳤다.


Even the sanitary police system in colonial Korea has been introduced through and by Japan, it is so different from it in Japan, in which co-existence of sanitary police and independent health bureau has been institutionalized. Colonial sanitary police system can be defined as not only the repressiveness but also the arrangement of health policy. It has been embedded in the colonization process, in which the Imperial Japan takes the control power to police away more earlier than the sovereignty from Chosun government. In the colonial government, Department of hygiene belong to the Police bureau, and monopolized the health policy and prevention of epidemics in Korea. The director of it has been changed from the police officer supported by military police to the general bureaucrats in 1920s, and to the medical officer from 1930. In the reformation from military rule to ‘cultural’ rule by March independent movement, Chosun colonial government are considering the more radical change, however, she decided the conservative control system should be continued by the shortage of fund and the epidemic project of Cholera. The activity of colonial sanitary police has been based on the prevention of epidemics and regularly house inspection of residents, and quarantine system. It is one of major elements of colonial governmentality. In the war-time periods, even the health and sanitary policy has been inclined for the recreation orientation, but in colonial Korea, it was so weak compared to it in Japan. Under the US military rule, the elements of colonial sanitary police system became more diluted, but it has been revitalized by the Korean war. It has so long-standing influences in post-colonial Korea.