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Within the vertebrate nervous system, myelination is required for the normal function of neurons by facilitating the rapid conduction of action potentials along axons. Oligodendrocytes are glial cells which myelinate axons in the central nervous system. Disruption of myelination and remyelination failure can cause human diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Despite the importance of myelination, the molecular basis of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination are still poorly understood. To understand the molecular mechanisms which regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, novel genes were identified using a microarray analysis. The analysis used oligodendrocyte lineage cells isolated from transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent proteins in the oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Seven genes not previously known to be involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation were identified, and their expression during oligodendrocyte development was validated.