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What was written in a published book focused on the keju(科擧) deserves careful consideration to understand its common idea at that time. This is the reason to compare A Study on the Examination System in China(『中國考試制度硏究』) written by Deng Dingren(鄧定人) and A Monograph on the Examination Systems in Every Dynasties(『歷代貢擧志』) known as a book of Feng Mengzhen(馮夢禎). The former is considered as the first modern research book on the keju, and the latter is the oldest one still extant on the same topic. Deng's book characterizes the keju as the examination to select the government officials, and regards it affirmatively as an institution usefully convertible to modern one in a nation-state. All the negative effects of it were due to the emperors which do not exist anymore. But Feng’s book is more critical to the kemu(科目), another name of the keju at that time. The reason is that it examines the candidates very rigorously, and treats them too differently from the successful candidates who are highly respected. It is not proper because all of them have no difference as a shi(士). Behind its argument, there is an assumption that the keju is not just a method to select government officials by emperors but a matter related with ‘tianxia(天下)’ for which the shi is responsible. The considerable gap between the two books’ contents implies that the realities of the keju in traditional times could be different from what is interpreted in modern era. Actually, the present notion of the keju is very similar to that of Deng’s book. It emphasizes that the keju was the state institution to select officials by examination. Viewed from this nation-centered standpoint, it is easy to miss some important aspects of the keju realized by the shi who applied for and passed it. Therefore we need to observe multiple aspects of the keju, and it would be helpful to rectify the images of the keju bent by the modern perspective.