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Background/Aims: To evaluate the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer (GC) according to tumor subtype in Korea. Methods: H. pylori status was determined serologically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In total, 2,819 patients with GC and 562 healthy controls were studied. A logistic regression method was used after adjusting for possible confounders. Results: The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in the GC patients (84.7%) than in the controls (66.7%) (odds ratio [OR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.46-3.97). The adjusted OR was significantly higher in H.-pylori-infected patients aged <60 years (OR, 4.69; 95% CI, 3.44-6.38) than in those aged ≥60 years (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.88-2.46;p<0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed no differences in seroprevalence between early gastric cancer (84.8%; OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.27-4.01) and advanced gastric cancer (84.6%; OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.24-3.85),cardia cancer (83.8%; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.16-4.02)and noncardia cancer (84.8%; OR, 3.17; 95% CI,2.48-4.04), and differentiated carcinoma (82.7%; OR,2.99; 95% CI, 2.21-4.04) and undifferentiated carcinoma (86.8%; OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.32-4.00). Conclusions: The seroprevalence of H. pylori was higher in GC patients than in healthy controls, especially in younger patients. H. pylori infection is associated with GC, regardless of the tumor location,stage, or differentiation