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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines and has a variable course; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis comprise the two main forms of the condition. Although IBD occurs worldwide, its epidemiologic and clinical characteristics vary depending upon the geographic location and the ethnicity of the population. Identifying the characteristic features of IBD in populations living in different geographical locations and with different ethnicities may provide significant clues about its etiology and pathophysiology, which in turn may be helpful in the development of more appropriate treatment strategies for IBD for these different populations. Therefore, it is important for each country and region to evaluate critically the epidemiology, genomics,and clinical characteristics of IBD among its own population. We have performed a critical review of the recent data in Korea, and describe herein the current epidemiologic and genotypic status, as well as the clinical manifestations and therapeutic responses of IBD that are unique to Korean patients.