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Methylcyclohexane is frequently used in industrial sites (2,592tons/year) as rubber adhesives, ink, paint thinners,organic solvents, and so on. However, there are limited data on the toxic evaluation of methylcyclohexane. This study aims to predict the hazards and neurological effects of methylcyclohexane using SD rats in order to prevent health disorders of workers. The OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals (OECD, 2001) was used as a reference during the tests. For 13 weeks (once a day, five days per week) 0, 10, 100 and 1,000mg/kg/day of methylcyclohexane was injected to SD rats to observe any changes in the body or organ weight, hematology, histopathology, mobility, blood pressure,and neurotransmitter. As a result, some male and female SD rats injected with 1,000mg/kg/day of methylcyclohexane died. On the other hand, surviving rats showed significant changes such as hematological changes involving the decrease in the number of red blood corpuscles, and the decrease or increase in the weight of the lungs, kidneys,spleens, and livers (p< 0.05, p<0.01). Also histopathological lesions were observed in the hearts and kidneys. In the test for the effect on the nervous system, SD rats injected with 100mg/kg/day of methylcyclohexane had higher blood pressure levels compared to the control group. However, no abnormal effects was observed in the mobility,serotonin, neurotransmitter, and the biopsy of the brain and coronary arteries. The study results revealed that the livers, hearts, and kidneys were affected by methylcyclohexane. The absolute toxic dose of methylcyclohexane is 1,000mg/kg/day, NOAEL is 100 mg/kg/day, and it is not a toxic substance to the nervous system.