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This study has searched the development process of Yeom, Mu-ung's criticism in the 1960-70's and its significance in the literary history. As a critic of 4.19 generation, he joined the quarterly literary magazine, 'Chang-bi' through the career as a coterie of 'Prose Generation', '68 Literature'. His criticism makes it possible to review that 4.19 spirit progressed to get its own literary issue as being dispersed into the same generation. While he investigated modernity on the base of Western literary theory in his early criticism, as he got to recognize the complexity of modern Korea, he began to view the literature in the aspect of historical sense. As he criticized the ideality of pure literary theory and the diagram of criticism in the post-war period, he began to seek the new principle of criticism and insisted the necessity of literature based on concrete reality by accepting Arnold Hauser's society of art. Yeom, Mu-ung's criticism in the 1960s, which reflects the record of incessant self-renewal, is the result of serious introspection on the relation between the literature and the reality of the times. Through this process, Yeom, Mu -ung took the place of a representative 'theory of national literature' in the 1970s.