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하영원과 한혜진(2002)은 시간적 리프레이밍(temporal reframing) 이론을 확장하여 소비자들이 가격을 지불할때 지출 총액을 기준으로 수용할 수 있는 금액이라고 생각되는 경계조건 내에서는 분리 프레임을 더 선호한다고 주장하였다. 반면 우리가 평소 물건을 구입할 때 제시된 금액이 적다고 생각하면 일시불로 결제를 하지만 금액이 크다고 판단하면 분할 납부를 선호하는 성향을 고려할 때 이러한 관점은 평소 우리들이 경험한 직관과는 상이한 결과를 제시하고 있다고 생각하였다. 따라서 본 연구는 거래와 관련된 소비자들의 의사결정 과정을 거래를 수락하는 단계와 비용을 지불하는 단계로 나눌 경우 이러한 차이를 설명할 수 있을 것이라고 생각하고 연구를 진행하였다. 특히 이번 연구는 비용을 지불하는 단계에 초점을 맞추어 소비자들에게 제시된 지출 금액의 높고 낮음에 따라 프레임에 대한 소비자 선호가 달라질 수 있다고 가정하고, 3번의 실험을 통해 비용 지불 단계에서 소비자들에게 제시된결제 금액의 크기와 선택 프레임에 대한 소비자들의 선호가 어떠한 관계를 갖고 있는지 살펴보았다. 연구 결과, 비용 지불 단계에서는 소비자들이 일시불로 결제가 가능하다고 생각하는 경계조건을 기준으로 제시된결제 금액이 이보다 낮을 때는 통합 프레임(예: 일시불 조건)을 선호하였으며 제시된 결제 금액이 경계조건보다 높을 때는 분리 프레임(예: 할부 조건)을 더 선호하였다. 이번 연구는 이러한 현상이 발생할 수 있는 기제로 해석수준이론(construal level theory)과 이에 기반한 지불비용감소(payment depreciation) 현상을 제시하고 그 가능성을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과는 기존의 이론적 연구와 현실의 불일치가 상호 모순되는 것이 아니라 거래 상황에서의사결정 단계에 따라 프레임의 효과가 달리 나타난 것으로 해석할 수 있다.


Framing theory asserts that choice depends on the way a problem is presented or framed. For example, the widespread use of a PAD(Pennies-a-Day) strategy suggests that if the price is presented as multiple small units to consumers, their perception of loss is decreased. Especially, according to Gourville(1998), when consumers are asked to evaluate the transaction,they prefer to be anchored on small on-going expenses rather than on the total cost. However,this assertion for segregating costs contradicts our experiences that prefer to integrate the total cost as a single expense when the amount of expenditure is regarded as below the level we can afford it. To solve this apparent contradiction between theory and practice, we try to suggest a theoretical framework that can integrate these mixed evidences. Specifically, we regard that if there are two difference decision making stages(i.e., transaction acceptance vs. payment consideration) in the transaction, previous studies only examined the effect of frame in the vein of the transaction acceptance stage. To figure out the another unexplained domain,we focus on the payment consideration stage in this study. We try to identify the effect of frame at this stage and examine which choice frame(i.e., segregation or aggregation) is regarded more valuable depending upon the perceived amount of the payment(i.e., large or small). We think that the absolute expenditure level could work as a boundary condition at this stage. Because Ha and Han(2002) asserted that the absolute expenditure level in addition to small on-going expense had taken a role of boundary condition in the effect of temporal reframing. Our study consists of a pre-test and three main studies. The pre-test administered to identify the general perceptions of the amount of expenditure which are to be considered as boundary condition in the typical transaction. The outcomes show that it is around 200,000won. In Study 1, we try to confirm whether the effect of frame can be different according to the transaction stage consumer faced. The results show that people render preference toward segregated option at the transaction acceptance stage. However the subjects with payment consideration stage go for aggregated option. Thus, these outcomes support our research questions that the effect of frame could not be identical according to the decision making stage consumer involved. Study 2 is conducted to confirm our research hypothesis on the payment consideration stage. Study 2 adopted 3 x 2 between-group design. That is, amount of total expenditure with 3 conditions(i.e., 120,000 won, 210,000 won and 420,000 won) and expenditure frame with 2 conditions(i.e., aggregation and segregation)are implemented in Study 2. The outcomes of Study 2 show that the subjects with below or on the boundary condition prefer to select the aggregated option but the respondents with above the boundary condition go for segregated option. These results support our research hypothesis. Study 3 proceeds to check the theoretical foundation underpinning our research hypothesis. In respect to the outcomes,we propose payment depreciation based on the construal level theory as the underlying mechanism for our research conceptions at the payment consideration stage. In Study 3, the payment depreciation was only found at the high expenditure condition. Considering that the segregated frame temporarily separated payment from the transaction, we think that consumer's preference to segregated frame has relation to payment depreciation. This finding could be regarded as supporting our reasoning in this study. In general, this study supports our prediction that the effect of frame could be differed according to the consumer's decision making stage at the transaction. It means that there might be two kinds of temporal reframing strategies in relation to the boundary condition(i.e.,on-going expense vs. total expenditure) they faced.