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본 연구는 교도소 질서와 수형자 행동을 이해하기 위해서는 수형자 개인에 대한 분석을 넘어 교도소가 만들어내는 독특한 사회적 상황(social climate)이 고려되어야 한다는 전제하에 교도소의 사회맥락적 특성을 교도소 문화라는 개념으로 이해하고자 하는 시도로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 본 연구는 먼저 교도소의 행동규범의 존재를 파악하고, 교도소내 행위자들 사이의 관계의 질을 분석하여 교도소의 사회문화적 특성이 규율위반으로 측정된 수형자 행동에 영향을 주는 지를 확인하고자 하였다. 20개 교도소의 986명의 수형자들 대상으로 그들의 행동규범과 규율위반행동에 영향을 주는 요인들을 분석한 결과 수형자 행동규범의 수용에는 그들이 느끼는 구금의 고통, 동료 수형자로 부터의 각종 피해경험, 그리고 직원과의 부정적 관계가 영향을 주었으며, 규율위반행동에는 피해경험이 유의미한 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 분석결과를 토대로 이론적, 실천적 함의를 논의하였다.


This study tries to understand inmates' behavior with social context under which prison inmates experience everyday routine. The way the inmates interact with other inmates and with prison guards seems to make prisoners how to behave in the prison setting. More specifically this study examines the existence of inmates code and it's role in understanding inmates' rule violations and misconducts. With 986 Korean inmates derived from 20 correctional facilities across the country, the results find first that pains of imprisonment and distrust toward prison guards tend to increase the level of inmate's code among prisoners. In addition, the experience of physical, psychological and sexual victimization also increases the degree of acceptance of inmates code. Age and violent offense entered to the model as control variables have mixed results. Age has significant positive effects on the degree of inmate code. On the contrary, violent offenses fail to have significant effects. As many previous studies, self-control reaches statistical significance with its negative effects on inmate codes. However, when these variables entered into the model along with inmates codes to explain prisoners rule violations, only self-control, age and victimization experience attain expected effects with statistical significance. The inmate code does not show any meaningful effects on rule violations. In summary, it can be concluded that prison culture exists in Korean prison and pains caused by imprisonment drives many prisoners to follow inmate codes. In addition, victimization experience strongly affects the formation of inmate codes. And the relationship with the prison guards also influence the acceptance of inmates codes. However , this study does not confirm the effect of inmate code on the prison misconduct. Research limitations and correctional policy implications are discussed.