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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the biological effects of cyanoacrylate-combined calcium phosphate (CCP), in particular its potential to act as a physical barrier - functioning like a membrane - in rabbit calvarial defects. Methods: In each animal, four circular calvarial defects with a diameter of 8 mm were prepared and then filled with either nothing (control group) or one of three different experimental materials. In the experimental conditions, they were filled with CCP alone (CCP group), filled with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and then covered with an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS; BCP/ACS group), or filled with BCP and then covered by CCP (BCP/CCP group). Results: After 4 and 8 weeks of healing, new bone formation appeared to be lower in the CCP group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In both the CCP and BCP/CCP groups, inflammatory cells could be seen after 4 and 8 weeks of healing. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, CCP exhibited limited osteoconductivity in rabbit calvarial defects and was histologically associated with the presence of inflammatory cells. However, CCP demonstrated its ability to stabilize graft particles and its potential as an effective defect filler in bone augmentation, if the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of CCP were improved.