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ACE-Asia (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) in spring 2001 was a turning point to trigger international research interest on Asian dust (AD). This basically arose from the lack of research on AD, the important natural phenomenon to characterize the Northeast Asia. In contrast, health risk related to AD has been the primary concern in Korea. Although due in part to severe AD events of 2001~2002, research and mitigation measures on AD in Korea are typically based on the assumption that AD events are increasing in frequency and severity. However, contrary to the trend in Korea, the number of AD days and emission amounts of AD in China have decreased since 1980s. This paper reviews the impacts of AD on ambient air quality and variations in toxic substances during the AD event, reflecting the concern in Korea. While a great amount of dust particles flow into Korea during the AD event, a considerable amount of dust particles are locally generated as well. Since dust particles are mixed with toxic substances as they pass over polluted areas, the levels of toxic substances become lower in dust particles that do not pass over polluted areas. Broadening the research scope on AD is warranted to understand the AD as an important natural phenomenon, irrespective of its associated health risk.