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Caesalpinia sappan (C. sappan) is a medicinal plant used for promoting blood circulation and removing stasis. During a screening procedure on medicinal plants, the ethylacetate extract of the lignum of C. sappan (CLE) showed inhibitory activity on arginase which has recently been reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. CLE inhibited arginase II activity prepared from kidney lysate in a dose-dependent manner. In HUVECs, inhibition of arginase activity by CLE reciprocally increased NOx production through enhancement of eNOS dimer stability without any significant changes in the protein levels of eNOS and arginase II expression. Furthermore, CLE-dependent arginase inhibition resulted in increase of NO generation and decrease of superoxide production on endothelium of isolated mice aorta. These results indicate that CLE augments NO production on endothelium through inhibition of arginase activity, and may imply their usefulness for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.