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China's crisis during a century since mid-19th century, was the unique phase different from historical experiences conquered by northen nomads, from the viewpoint of the crisis of the civilization on which Chinese universal empire had been traditionally based. And then since 1990s, modern China is rising as a world power taking advantage of the tide of globalization, and makes an attempt to suggest a new Chinese pattern of civilization under the influences of Western culture. Expecting the restoration of Chinese imperial tradition, I will suggest to reexamine several issues about modern Chinese history. First, it might be the subject of criticism that Chinese imperial tradition and inheritance of long civilization is underrated and the break between last Chinese empire and modern nation state is accentuated in consequence of emphasizing the influence of modern western imperialism and the historical task clearing 'feudal society'. As it was, in the later-19th century, period of Yangwu(洋務) reform, the Qing(淸) China made considerably successful efforts to maintain firmly the Imperial order, and since the National revolution in 1920s, modern China was able to accomplish the task building independent nation state within 30 years, and establish the unified powerful regime under Chinese Communist leadership, whose influences now reached world politics. In this phase the rehabilitation of Chinese imperial tradition was anticipated, Chinese nationalism still remained important issue, but the research tendency to give undue stress to nationalism and populist revolution should be criticized. The themes to deserve research for the future of china at present is the problem of constitutionalism and government by law for the construction of democratic republic, and problem of cultural view to reestablish Chinese culture coping with Western culture in world civilization. the debate about parliament was began as a device to open political opinion of Confucian literati and reform bureaucratic institution through introducing of western information, and developed to efforts introducing constitutional government and 1911 Republican Rrevolution at the beginning of 20th century. But these movements were frustrated, and the Chinese infant republic was broken up into fragments by military decentralization at province level under world imperialism, which resulted in May-fourth movement and National revolution. Hereafter the democratic constitutionalism and government by law were overwhelmed by the populist revolution of anti-imperialism through utopian ideology and mobilization of populace. The demands for democratic constitutional government from independent parties and societies were absorbed into the communist party's national united front, and then submitted to the dictatorship of a revolutionary party, that continued from the nationalist party to the communist party. As modern Chinese cultural views coping with the Western civilization, the logics of 'China as substance, West as practice'(中體西用) and 'over-all westernization' (全般西化) belong to the most notable views. It was since the beginning of the Reform movement(1895-1898) that the term of 'China as substance, West as practice' was used. The term reflects the perception of Chinese literati in the age that the Western civilization merited equivalent to Chinese civilization, therefore the union of two civilizations was desirable. The logic could be applicable to indicate cultural views of all ages from Yangwu reform to republican era, but developed to more profound and abstract concept according to the advancement of their appreciation about both civilizations of China and the West. The logic was the device for the sake of the nationalistic acception of foreign cultures and the critical succession of trditional culture. the logic of 'over-all westernization' representing the ideas of later enlightenment movement of May-Fourth era, pursues general rearrangement and rebuilding of traditional cultural inheritance(國故). But it was replaced to 'the full realization of world culture' (globalization, 充分世界化), attacked by the proclamation of Chinese-centered cultural establishment which was a new form of 'China as substance, West as practice'.


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世界化, 民權, 憲政, 法治, 分權化, 洋務, 變法, 民衆革命, 大一統, 黨治, 中西文化, 道器論, 中體西用, 全般西化, 國故, globalization, people's rights, constitutional government, government by raw, decentralization, Yangwu, reform movement, populist revolution, great unity, dictatorship by one party, cultures of China and the West, principle and implement, 'China as substance, West as practice', over-all westernization, traditional cultural inheritance