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Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes. Although there has been a continuous increase in the incidence of diabetic neuropathy, treatments have yet to be found that effectively treat diabetic neuropathy. Neurotrophic factors are proteins that promote the survival of specific neuronal populations. They also play key roles in the regeneration of peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence from diabetic animal models and human diabetic subjects suggest that reduced availability of neurotrophic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. One way to reverse this effect is to take advantage of the finding that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) promote peripheral nerve repair and the functioning of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we speculated that treatment with BM-MSCs could be a viable therapeutic strategy for diabetic neuropathy. The present study was designed to examine the possible beneficial effect of BM-MSCs on functions of neurotrophic factors in diabetic neuropathy. To assess this possibility, we used an in vivo streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy mouse model. Quantitative real-time polymerase-chain reacion showed that BM-MSCs significantly increase expression levels of neurotrophic factors. Also, BMMSCs ameliorated nerve conduction velocity in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results may help to elucidate the mechanism by which BM-MSCs function as a cell therapy agent in diabetic neuropathy.