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Previous studies have shown that plant-based vegetarian diets, which typically contain a variety of antioxidants and dietary fiber, help reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. However, some studies have reported that vegetarian diets can lead to deficiencies in protein and trace minerals compared to non-vegetarian diets. This study was conducted to compare anthropometric measurements, blood parameters, dietary intake, and hair mineral status in long-term vegetarians (MV; moderate vegan, LV; lacto-ovo vegetarian) and non-vegetarians (NV). Thirty MV (12 males, 18 females; mean age, 50.58 ± 5.05 years), 15 LV (11 males, four females; mean age, 49.45 ± 4.97 years), and 30 NV (15 males, 15 females; mean age, 48.90 ± 3.62 years) participated. No significant differences were observed for age, height, weight, or body mass index, but body fat was significant lower in MV and LV males than that in NV males. White blood cell counts of MV, LV, and NV male subjects were significantly different. Dietary intake data showed that plant protein and plant iron intake were significantly higher in MV and LV than those in NV. Animal protein, animal fat, and animal iron intake were significantly higher in NV than those in MV and LV. A hair mineral analysis showed that calcium and iron were higher in the hair of MV and LV than those in NV. Zinc concentration in hair was not significantly different among the groups. The results suggest that vegetarian diets are adequate to sustain mineral status to at least the same degree as that of non-vegetarian diets. (Korean J Nutr 2011; 44(3): 203 ~ 211)