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High concentration of PM10 was reported on late July, 2005 in Seoul along with high particulate ion concentrations in PM2.5. To identify the reason for the severe air pollution episode, time series analysis of the PM10 concentration in the monitoring sites over Korea, wind sector analysis, trend analysis of the ion concentrations, and air mass trajectory analysis were carried out. It was found that the episode could be classified into two separate periods; first one between July 22 and 27 and second one between July 28 and 31. During the first period, the PM10concentrations at Seoul were in good correlation with the PM10 concentration three hours before at Chuncheon. Trajectory analysis showed that air mass moved from north and turned to west at Kangwon province to Seoul. The concentrations of PM10 mass and ionic species were lower than the second period. During the second period, air mass moved from northern China to Seoul directly and the PM10 concentrations all over the mid-Korean peninsula showed the same trend. These observations suggest that the air pollution during the second period was affected by direct transport of air pollutants from northern China. Thus, the air quality at Seoul during both periods were influenced by long-range transport from outside rather than by local sources, but with different transport patterns.