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This paper investigates the relationships of cognitive and affective individual difference variables (i.e., second language [L2] aptitude and L2 learning motivation,respectively) to proficiency and achievement in Korean as a second language (KSL)for Chinese learners of Korean enrolled in a university-affiliated Korean language institute. The data were analyzed by a variety of statistical methods involving correlation and multiple regression. The subtest scores of the aptitude test battery showed strong correlations with overall L2 proficiency and achievement in speaking,listening, reading, and vocabulary and grammar, while measures of the attitude/motivation test battery also correlated with L2 success in reading and speaking to a certain extent. The present study contributed to an in-depth understanding of factors that influence success in KSL and highlighted utility of the aptitude and attitude/motivation test batteries used in this study for predicting L2 success of learners of Korean. Implications for further research and limitations of the present study were also discussed.