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This study aimed to identify and understand natural groupings of preschoolers in terms of their temperamental factors. We also investigated the effects of preschoolers' temperament, mothers' parenting stress and emotion regulation strategies on behavior problems in preschoolers. The participants included 238 preschoolers in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. We measured the preschoolers' temperament using JTCI 3~6 and behavior problems using K-CBCL. And we measured mothers' parenting stress using K-PSI-SF and emotion regulation strategies using ERSQ. The results suggested the presence of three clusters and the three groups significantly differed on their various scores. Particularly, the results showed that mothers' parenting stress was the significant predictor of internal and external behavior problems in preschoolers. And it appeared that the development of behavior problems was affected by the preschoolers' temperament and mothers' emotion regulation strategies. Therapeutic implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.