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Pregnancy associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare condition. It may affect women during pregnancy or after the delivery and it can induce severe back pain. Physicians can find multiple compression fractures on the plain images of these patients. However, little is known about PAO, including the prevalence, the cause, the risk factors and the prognosis. Herein we report on a case of PAO in a 38-year-old female who suffered from severe back pain induced by multiple vertebral compression fractures. After excluding the possibility of unknown malignancy, the patient underwent vertebroplasty to improve the clinical symptom. The bone biopsy results confirmed multiple benign acute compression fractures. The patient was treated with oral bisphosphonate, calcium and vitamin D. She showed clinical improvement without developing any additional vertebral fracture. When young women during pregnancy or just after the delivery complain of persistent back pain, PAO should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and early recognition and treatment are needed for PAO.