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이 연구는 14-15세기 에든버러가 어떻게 스코틀랜드 제1의 상업도시와 수도로 발전하게 되었는가를 에든버러 성과 국왕의 역할을 통해 고찰한다. 에든버러는 성채바위로 인해 일찍부터 요새로서 사용되었다. 스코틀랜드 국왕들은 에든버러를 하나의 거점도시로 발전시키고자하였다. 그러나 에든버러는 도시의 생명인 물길로부터 2마일이나 격리되어 있어서 상업도시로 성장하기에 치명적인 약점을 지니고 있었다. 이러한 열악한 여건에도 불구하고 데이비드 1세는 성의 요새로서의 기능을 중시하여, 12세기 중반 에든버러에 국왕 도시의 자격을 부여하였고, 주요 시설을 세우고, 시민들을 유치하기 위해 많은 상업적 특권을 부여하였다. 왕실의 지원 덕분에 에든버러는 14세기 말에는 도시로서의 기능을 완전히 수행할 수 있었다. 도시의 성장은 도시를 보호하는 수단, 즉 외성을 필요로 하게 만들었고, 외성은 다시 도시의 안전과 특권을 함께 보호하였다. 국왕의 역할이 도시의 성장에 핵심 요소가 되면서 국왕과 도시민의 관계는 매우 우호적이었다. 에든버러는 국왕의 주된 거주지로 수도의 위상을 가지게 되었고, 더욱 상업적 혜택을 입었다. 이에 도시는 왕을 위해 재정적으로 봉사하였고, 왕은 도시에 자치권을 부여하면서 화답하였다. 14-15세기 에든버러의 발전은 국왕의 안전을 보장해 준 에든버러 성에서 시작되었다.


This article explores that how Edinburgh became the biggest commercial city and the capital of Scotland by the end of the fifteenth century. The Castle Rock surrounded by stiff cliffs of three sides, is 80m high from the ground level. The eastern side of the rock is the only access where the ridge runs gently to the east about a mile. For this reason the Castle Rock had been used as a fortress from the earliest inhabitation. Edinburg became a royal burgh in about 1130, as David I noticed the merit of the rock. He decided to make the city as one of his main residential places. Edinburgh was one of his fifteen royal burghs founded for the trade and income. However, Edinburgh was not a suitable place to promote the trade as it has no river running thorough or nearby. David, nevertheless, built the Holyrood Abbey at the east end of the tail, and a single high street called Royal Mile between the castle and the abbey. In the middle of the Royal Mile were the merket cross and St. Giles Church which was the parish church. They were the basic infrastructure for the religious and commercial life of the burgh. While collecting the rent from the burgesses, he granted many royal privileges such as free toll in other cities and monopoly on the foreign trade. This policy must have attracted merchants who would be the main burgesses of the burgh. Above all, the function of the castle as a fortress and a royal palace was reinforced considerably in the mid-fourteenth century. Once the security and the necessity for the royal family met, the security of the burgesses was to be assured. The burgh suffered severely from the English attacks in the fourteenth century. However, by the mid-fifteenth century the King’s Wall was constructed. This provided the burgesses with security, at least the sense of security, and protected their privileges against outsiders. The Scottish kings of the fifteenth century built the Holyrood Palace to use as the main royal residence. Edinburgh became the normal meeting place of the parliament. The burgh prospered. The relationship between the crown and the burgesses had never been better than the fifteenth century. Whereas the burgesses enjoyed many privileges from the crown, the crown gained the financial and political assistance. In many crucial points the burgesses sided with the crown rather than the treacherous nobility. The burgh was allowed to have its own sheriff during the reign of James III. The burgh became the indisputable capital of Scotland by the end of the century. All this began from the Castle Rock. Edinburg is still one the fast growing cities in Britain thanks to the castle.