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This article aims to explain Deleuze's conception of sign and of affect according to his three periods which can be named as expressionism, machinism and a study of the image. In the period of the expressionism, the sign is the reflection of an essence, whereas, in the period of the machinism with Guattari, the basic elements of the sign don't have any meaning, but those combinations product a meaning. In Deleuze's last period, images form a sign of thought for itself in the universe of omnidirectional variation where the distinction of essence and phenomena is completely abolished. With regard to the affect, in departing from the Spinozist distinction between affection and affect, it is enriched by synthesizing originally psychoanalysis and ethology. The concept of affect which is thought as a real becoming in this way is enlarged into the problem of esthetics which consists in abstracting pure affects.