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1920년대 중앙아시아 소비에트 사회주의 체제 수립의 시기에 여성 격리의 상징인 베일에 대한 ‘공격’을 뜻하는 ‘후줌(худжум)’운동은 우즈베키스탄에서 가장 활발하게 일어났다. 여성의 베일은 이슬람 전통문화의 존속, 맑스주의 여성해방 이념의 실천, 새로운 소비에트사회주의 체제수립이라는 충돌하는 목표들 사이에서 가장 핵심적인 문제의 하나로 떠올랐다. 본 논문은 베일을 매개로 민족 간, 젠더 간 갈등, 혹은 민족과 젠더 간 갈등이 중층적으로 일어났다는 입장으로서, 그 갈등적 긴장관계에 참가하는 행위자들의 다양한 또는 모순적인 행동양식에 나타나는 수용 및 저항의 양상을 확인하고자 한다. 그를 위해 본 논문에서는 1917년 혁명 이후 우즈베키스탄을 포함해 중앙아시아 지역에서 소비에트 사회주의 체제를 건설하기 위해 급격한 정치, 경제, 사회적 변형을 주도하였던 국가 및 공산당 지도부(그리고 여성부)와 이에 맞서 이슬람 전통과 문화적 정체성을 지키려던 우즈벡 토착민들 간의 갈등관계를 극단적으로 보여주는 후줌운동을 민족과 베일, 젠더와 베일의 상관관계 속에서 재구성한다. 아울러 민족갈등과 젠더갈등이라는 2개의 최전선 사이에서 우즈벡 토착민 여성과 남성의 베일을 둘러싼 상이한 전략을 확인할 것이다.


In the late 1920s, women's veil emerged in Uzbekistan as one of the most controversial issues related to preservation of traditional islam culture, practice of woman's liberation ideas and establishment of the new Soviet socialist regime. In 1927, thousands of Uzbek women threw off their veils (that is, paranjis and chachvons). However, during the three years of the 'Hujum (attack)' campaign, from 1927 to 1929, about 2,000 were murdered in connection with unveiling by Uzbek males such as husbands, brothers, and even fathers in muhallas (traditional Uzbek communities). This article examines how the Hujum was embarked by the Communist Party (and the Soviet government, Central Asia Bureau's Women's Division) and why it faced stubborn resistance from the Uzbek people. It also focuses on women's voices appeared in recent researches and explain the relationship between Communist Party leaders and various active groups in Uzbekistan. This article intends to answer such questions as; was women's veil a preservation of Islam culture and tradition or a symbol of the oppressed victims by the backward muslim patriarchal society? (second chapter) Was women's unveiling regarded as women's liberation by Uzbek females and males? (third chapter) Was it an object of religious persecution for the establishment of new Soviet regime or decisive measures of Uzbek national and cultural identities against the Soviet government and the Communist Party? (fourth chapter)? Hujum campaign and the popular resistance gives an important clue in exploring these problems. In probing Hujum campaign and violence against women in Uzbekistan during the period of 1927-1929, this article emphasizes three contexts; political, religious, and gender one. The context did not simply refer to the Party's Hujum campaign, but rather included terrific social upheaval against the Red Army and the Soviet government, religious resistance against the Communist Party, women's attack against traditional patriarchal boundary. In my view, for the majority of women who suffered from the intimidating attacks from both sides of their traditional communities and the Communist Party, veiling, unveiling, and re-veiling were a pragmatic response to social and political pressure.