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明代吐鲁番研究中有两位非常重要的人历史人物:土鲁番速檀阿力王、羽奴思汗。在汉文文献中,前者是曾任吐鲁番统治者,并首次占领明朝哈密卫,此后,明朝虽屡有恢复,但哈密仍多次被吐鲁番占领,并最终为明朝弃之不顾。羽奴思汗则更多出现在非汉文文献中,尤其是「拉失德史」对羽奴思汗有大量而详细的记载。学界多数观点认为二者为同一人。但实际上,二人有诸多不相符合之处。本文。本文首先廓清了「拉失德史」所述羽奴思汗的活动地域,然后厘清了汉文文献中的“羽奴思”,哪些是「拉失德史」所载之羽奴思,而哪些不是。通过比对历史文献发现,速檀阿力王与羽奴思汗的活动区域与时间并不一致,不可能是同一人。然而,汉文文献中速檀阿力王之子与「拉失德史」中羽奴思之子同为“速檀阿黑麻”的情况,是辨明工作不可回避的问题。通过比对史料,本文发现,羽奴思汗与汉文文献中的另一人——“迤西速檀阿力”很可能是同一人,而“迤西速檀阿力”与“土鲁番速檀阿力王”不可能为同一人。通过分析“速檀阿力王”、“羽奴思汗”与迤西速檀阿力的关系,本文认定:羽奴思汗不是速檀阿力王,而是迤西速檀阿力。明代误将“吐鲁番速檀阿力王”视为“迤西速檀阿力”,并作出了“速檀阿力王”之子为“速檀阿黑麻”的错误记录。后世学者据则此进一步误以为“速檀阿力王”即“羽奴思汗”。


In Turfan of Ming Dynasty, there were two very significant figures: Turfan Sultan Ali and Yunus Khan. The former, in Chinese materials, was one of the ruler of Turfan and under his domination, Turfan occupied Hami for the first time. Afterwards, although Ming Dynasty recovered Hami for several times, Turfan still occupied Hami repeatedly until Ming Dynasty abandoned Hami eventually. contrarily, Yunus Khan was more recorded by non-Chinese materials, especially “A History of the Moghuls - Tarikh-i-Rashidi.” Nowadays, many scholars viewed the two person as the same one. But, in fact, there were so many contradictions between those two persons This paper discovered Yunus’s activity territories described by A History of the Moghuls - Tarikh-i-Rashidi, and then clarified that which Yunus in Chinese materials was the one in A History of the Moghuls - Tarikh-i-Rashidi and which was not. By comparing the materials, this paper found that Sultan Ali’s activity territories were not Yunus Khan’s, so they could not be the same person. However, there was a problem could not be avoid that the son of Ali and the son of Yunus was such the same one in the materials. Also by comparing materials, this paper found that Yunus Khan would be another person in Chinese materirals whose name was “Yixi Sultan Ali” and the later could not be Turfan Sultan Ali. Through analyzing the relationship between “Turfan Sultan Ali”, “Yunus Khan” and “Yixi Sultan Ali”, this paper believed that Yunus Khan was not Turfan Sultan Ali but Yixi Sultan Ali. Because Ming Dynasty thought Turfan Sultan Ali as Yixi Sultan Ali and regarded “Sultan Ahmed” as the son of Turfan Sultan Ali incorrectly. and then, modern scholars misread Turfan Sultan Ali as Yunus Khan.