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The Sino-Japanese treaty of Amity, concluded in 1871, was based on the draft drawn up by the Chinese, and its first article provided that China and Japan should not invade the lands belonging to each other (所屬邦土不可稍侵越). The Ch’ing government aimed at preventing the Japanese from invading the Korean peninsula, because they had regarded Korea, Liu-ch’iu and so on as their dependencies and were weary of a Japan invasion of them. Soon after the conclusion of the treaty, the Taiwan Affair broke out. In 1874, Japan went on military expedition to attack the Taiwan aborigines (生蕃) who had murdered the Ryûkyûans who washed up ashore on the southern Taiwan coast, and came into antagonism with the Ch’ing government. Their dispute concerned the position of Taiwan aborigines whom the Japanese regarded as independent of the Ch’ing according to international law, but whom the Chinese considered to be their subjects. The Ch’ing authorities criticized the Japanese for an invasion against the provision of the Sino-Japanese treaty, but the Japanese maintained that it was impossible to recognize the subordination of the Taiwan aborigines to the Ch’ing without the latter’s effective control of the former. When China and Japan again disputed the position of Liu-ch’iu from 1878 to 1879, the same argument was repeated. These disputes resulted in Japan’s annexation of Ryûkyû which the Chinese called the downfall of their tributary state. It also meant that the aim and function of the Sino-Japanese treaty of Amity to prevent the Japanese from invading the dependencies of China were to no avail. It was, therefore, necessary for the Ch’ing government to look for a measure to secure Korea against the Japanese threat in place of the Sino-Japanese treaty. This was Korea’s conclusion of treaties with Western powers. Through the negotiation of the Korean-American treaty in 1882, the Chinese changed the concept of “dependency,” and this resulted in a transformation of the traditional order between China,Japan and Korea.