초록 close

화이트헤드는 초월성보다는 내재성을 통해서 실재에 대한 이해를 탐구하였다. 내재성은 과정을 실재로서 이해하는 것이다. 과정을 지성으로써 이해한다는 것은 베르그손의 말대로 ‘공간화’에 머물 수도 있다. 과정은 오직 직관을 통해서만 이해할 수 있다는 것이 베르그손의 관점이다. 화이트헤드는 베르그손과는 달리 지성과 직관은 모두 인간 경험의 중요한 측면이라고 보며, 이 양자의 결합을 통해 과정을 더욱 정합적이고 논리적으로 포착할 수 있다고 본다. 이 글은 화이트헤드의 과정철학에서 궁극자의 범주에 해당하는 창조성, 일자, 다자를 보다 쉽게 이해할 수 있게 설명하였으며, 이를 조직이론에 어떻게 적용가능하지를 살펴보았다. 오늘날 조직이론에서 다양한 변화의 물결이 일어나고 있다. 우리는 이런 변화가 전체적으로 과정철학, 특히 화이트헤드의 개념들과 밀접한 관련이 있음을 밝혀보고자 하였다.


How Whitehead's ultimate category and foresight can contribute to organization theory? This paper tried to show how Whitehead's work on process paradigm has contributed significantly towards efforts in organization theory to explore organization as process. For a long time, management scholars have been trying to exclude subjectivity from management in order to build an "objective" theory that can be applied universally to any situation that managers face. Despite this rational effort, it is impossible to completely exclude subjectivity from management. As Whitehead points out, science or knowledge cannot be freed from subjective factors because it is about issues of subjectivity, such as values, intensity. Creativity plays a important role in the relationship between human beings and the world. Process philosophy has been incorporated into the works of a few management scholars. Among them, Nonaka(2007) propose concrescence model of organizational change based on the philosophy of Whitehead. According to Nonaka, to understand management, we have to understand the process in which humans are interrelated. In the substance thinking of conventional economical theory, where the person is viewed as homo economicus, individual relationships are defined in contracts for satisfying people's desires only in terms of the possession and consumption of goods and the accumulation of wealth. There, there is no community, only individuals who exist apart from others. A contract-based view of external relationships cannot grasp the process of ultimate category(creativity, one, many). Nonaka also asserts that what defines the firm and the knowledge it creates is its practical ability to make value judgements in each particular situation to realize its vision of the future. This ability was described by Aristotle as an essential habit of mind that grasps the truth. It is the intellectual virtue he called phronesis, roughly translated as prudence, practical wisdom, and practical rationality. Whitehead translated it as foresight, seasonable truth. Therefore, The aim of this paper is to discuss the notion of Whitehead's process philosophy as being a unifying label for theoretical models that together emphasize innovation and stability, foresight(phronesis), concrete relationship and community.