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The study was conducted to compare two types of group composition and their effects on English listening proficiency development and collaborative learner interactions in a 12-session dictogloss instruction. Participants of the study were 141 Korean middle school students. They worked collaboratively either in homogeneous or heterogeneous small groups divided based on their English listening proficiency levels. Outcomes of pre-post English listening proficiency assessments showed that the two types of group composition (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous) did not differ in their effects on the participants’ achievements. The group composition types also showed no differential effects on English listening proficiencies across three differential proficiency levels of students (advanced, intermediate, low). The analyses of language-related episodes produced within 12 focal groups indicated no differential patterns in collaborative learner interactions between homogenous and heterogeneous small groups. Yet there was some evidence indicating that intermediate and low-level students might be more benefited when they were in heterogeneous groups. Overall, the study results suggested that collaborative learning could be effective either in a homogeneous or heterogeneous small group as well as across different language proficiency levels of students.