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Investigations into fatty acid composition in meats are becoming more important due to consumer demand for high quality healthy food. Marker-assisted selection has been applied to livestock to improve meat quality by directly selecting animals for favorable alleles that affect economic traits. Quantitative trait loci affecting fatty acid composition in cattle and pigs were investigated, and five candidate genes (ACACA, FASN, SCD, FABPs, and SREBP-1) were significantly associated with fatty acid composition. The information presented here should provide valuable guidelines to detect causative mutations affecting fatty acid composition in cattle and pigs.