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Objective : Subdural hygroma (SDG) is a complication occurring after head trauma that may occur secondary to decompressive craniectomy (DC). However, the mechanism underlying SDG formation is not fully understood. Also, the relationship between the operative technique of DC or the decompressive effect and the occurrence and pathophysiology of SDG has not been clarified. Purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of SDG after DC in our series. Methods : From January 2004 to December 2008, DC was performed in 85 patients who suffered from traumatic brain injury. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features. For comparative analysis, we divided the patients into 2 groups : one group with SDG after craniectomy (19 patients; 28.4% of the total sample), the other group without SDG (48 patients; 71.6%). The risk factors for developing SDG were then analyzed. Results : The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at discharge of the groups with and without SDG were 2.8 and 3.1, respectively (p< 0.0001). Analysis of radiological factors showed that a midline shift in excess of 5 mm on CT scans was present in 19 patients (100%) in the group with SDG and in 32 patients (66.7%) in the group without SDG (p<0.05). An accompanying subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was seen in 17 patients (89.5%) in the group with SDG and in 29 patients (60.4%) in the group without SDG (p<0.05). Delayed hydrocephalus accompanied these findings in 10 patients (52.6%) in the group with SDG, versus 5 patients (10.4%) in the group without SDG (p<0.05). On CT, compression of basal cisterns was observed in 14 members (73.7%) in the group with SDG and in 18 members of the group without SDG (37.5%) (p<0.007). Furthermore,tearing of the arachnoid membrane, as observed on CT, was more common in all patients in the group with SDG (100%) than in the group without SDG (31 patients; 64.6%) (p<0.05). Conclusion : GOS showed statistically significant difference in the clinical risk factors for SDG between the group with SDG and the group without SDG. Analysis of radiological factors indicated that a midline shifting exceeding 5 mm, SAH, delayed hydrocephalus, compression of basal cisterns, and tearing of the arachnoid membrane were significantly more common in patients with SDG.