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From the beginning of the 1970s, the Chinese government has been aggressive in implementing measures to control population. It was, however, not until the end of the 1970s that the discourse of population control was starting to emerge in public. Why was it slowed? And what made it possible to discuss population problems in public? By using the concept of “cultural structure”, this essay tries to explain the mechanism of the emergence of population discourses. Chinese society of the 1970s interpreted population control in two ways. One was “birth control”, which was associated with “overpopulation”, “industrial capital”, “unemployment”; the other was “birth planning”, which implied “the welfare of the women”, “the education of the children”, “the health” and so on. The former was regarded as the capitalism; the latter was understood as the socialism. The sharp confrontation between two ways of interpretation resulted in the suppression of population discourses. This cultural structure lasted until the chinese government invented the new theory of population control, named as “two kinds of production”. As the new symbol of the population theory of socialism, this weakened the sharp confrontation between “birth control” and “birth planning”, and brought about the reorganization of cultural structure.