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Various chemopreventive compounds alter gene expression, possibly explaining their biological activity. One gene induced by a variety of chemopreventive compounds is the one coding for the transcription factor activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). In this study, we performed microarray analysis on mRNA isolated from human colorectal cancer cells overexpressing ATF3 to ascertain the biological activity of this gene in cancer. As a result, 64 genes were induced or repressed. One gene identified by microarray analysis as repressed by overexpression of ATF3 was inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation-1 (Id1). Id1 is important to cell growth and proliferation and therefore may represent an important downstream target of ATF3 responsible for the biological activity of ATF3. Id1 interacts with ATF3, thereby sequestering its activity, making it an ideal candidate for further study. The induction of ATF3 and repression of Id1 in these cells were confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. To determine if the repression of Id1 seen following microarray analysis of these cells occurred following treatment with dietary compounds with known chemotherapeutic activity, human colorectal cancer cells were treated with resveratrol and genistein, and their expression was determined. As a result, ATF3 was induced, and Id1 was repressed, by these compounds and by sulindac sulfide, a positive control, at the mRNA and protein level. Further work is needed to determine the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the regulation of Id1 and to determine if biological activity of ATF3 overexpression is mediated by repression of Id1 by these compounds.