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This study explored the effects of parenting efficacy and parental role satisfaction on the life-satisfaction of employed and unemployed mothers. The 527 mothers(234 employed, and 277 unemployed), with a child under 7years old, were selected for this study. The results were as follows. First, employment had significant correlations with several factors, including the number of children, family income, educational level of parents, parent-child relations, preparedness for parental role conflict, and life-satisfaction. Second, for employed mothers, life-satisfaction had positive relationships with various factors, including family income, fathers’ educational level, parenting efficacy,and parental role satisfaction; whereas, that of unemployed mothers had positive relationships with parenting efficacy, and parental role satisfaction. Third, for employed mothers, life-satisfaction was affected by several factors,such as family income, parental role satisfaction, parent-child relations, and preparedness for parental role conflict;however, unemployed mothers were affected by the number of children, the fathers’ educational level, and selfconfidence relating to the parental role, general satisfaction, and preparedness for parental role conflict.