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This paper describes a model based fault detection algorithm for an Advanced ESC System which consists of Hydraulic Control Unit (HCU) with built-in wheel pressure sensors. Advanced ESC System can be used for various value-added functions such as Stop & Go Function and Regenerative Brake Function. Therefore, HCU must have a reliable fault detection. Due to the huge amount of sensor signals, existing specific sensor based fault detection of HCU cannot guarantee the safety of vehicle. However, proposed algorithm dose not require the sensors. When model based fault detection algorithm detects severe failures of the HCU, it warns the driver in advance to prevent accidents due to the failures. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed and validated in comparison to actual data. Simulation results and data acquired from an actual system are compared with each other to obtain the information needed for the fault detection process.