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The purpose of animal research in obstetric anesthesia is to find out the mechanisms of uterine contraction, to develop drugs for prevention of preterm labor, and to evaluate the effects of drugs on uterine contraction and the fetus in pregnant animals. Especially,anesthesiologists are interested in uterine contraction and fetal safety during pregnancy, labor, and cesarean section. As regional anesthesia and analgesia have come into widespread use for women in obstetric procedure, effects of local anesthetics on uterine contraction and umbilical blood flow that may be harmful to fetus are very important. A lot of animal studies about the effects of local anesthetics (e.g. lidocaine, bupivacaine, ropivacaine) on the uterine contraction and fetal safety have been carried. In addition,general anesthesia has also been still frequently utilized for cesarean delivery and nonobstetric procedure during pregnancy. A lot of animal studies about the effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics on the uterine contraction and fetal safety have been carried. And there are many animal studies about the mechanisms of uterine contraction and effective drugs to prevent preterm labor. Animal research in obstetrics have been carried in vivo/vitro or during pregnancy/non-pregnancy. We need to study further in order to develop effective drugs for prevention of preterm labor, and also to develop neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or artificial placenta for achieving stable blood gas exchange and oxygen supply to the fetus.