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The encapsulation of bacteria may be used to harness them for longer periods of time in order to make them viable, whereas antibiotic treatment would result in controlled release of therapeutic molecules. Encapsulated Escherichia coli GFP (green fluorescent protein) (E. coli GFP) was used here as a model for therapeutic substance -GFP fragments release (model of bioactive substances). Our aim was to evaluate the performance of bacteria encapsulated in hollow fibers (HFs) treated with antibiotic for induction of cell death. The polypropylene-surfacemodified HFs were applied for E. coli encapsulation. The encapsulated bacteria were treated with tetracycline in vitro or in vivo during subcutaneous implantation into mice. The HF content was evaluated in a flow cytometer,to assess the bacteria cell membrane permeability changes induced by tetracycline treatment. It was observed that the applied membranes prevented release of bacteria through the HF wall. The E. coli GFP culture encapsulated in HF in vitro proved the tetracycline impact on bacteria viability and allows the recognition of the sequence of events within the process of bacteria death. Treatment of the SCID mice with tetracycline for 8 h proved the tetracycline impact on bacteria viability in vivo, raising the necrotic bacteriareleasing GFP fragments. It was concluded that the bacteria may be safely enclosed within the HF at the site of implantation, and when the animal is treated with antibiotic, bacteria may act as a local source of fragments of proteins expressed in the bacteria, a hypothetical bioactive factor for the host eukaryotic organism.