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전통적인 촌락은 현대의 도시와 달리 자연환경의 영향을 많이 받아서 형성된 것이 대부분이다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 산록완사면과 하천지역, 해안지역에 분포하는 촌락의 입지 특성을 기후적 관점에서 검토하였다. 산록완사면 촌락은 겨울철 추위를 극복하기 위해 북서풍을 차단할 수 있고 일조량이 풍부한 남향에 위치하였다. 또한 산록완사면은 주변보다 고도가 높아 여름철 홍수를 극복할 수 있다. 하천 주변의 촌락은 대부분 피수가 가능한 자연제방과 하안단구에 위치하고 있으며, 방수림이나 돈대와 같은 피수시설을 설치하였다. 해안지역의 촌락은 강풍과 해일에 의한 피해와 관련해서 입지가 결정되는데, 간척지의 촌락은 터돋움을 한 대지에 입지하고, 해안평야에서는 고도가 높은 완사면이나 사구 후면에 촌락이 분포하며 촌락 전면에 방풍림을 조성하였다. 이러한 촌락 경관들도 우리나라의 기후조건과 밀접한 관련이 있다.


Location of raditional village is influenced by natural environment differently from that of modern city. So this study deals with primary factor of location of village distributed over gentle slope, riverside and coastal region from climatic point of view. ‘Gentle slope village’ was located in the south side coped with the winter cold. The south side is sheltered from the northwestly wind, and is abundant in sunshine. ‘Gentle slope village’ was located higher than plain for coped with summer flood. ‘Riverside village’ was located in the natural levee and river terrace for coped with summer flood. ‘Riverside village’ had equipment of flood control like ‘floodbreak forest’ and high ground. Location of ‘coastal village’ was determined out of consideration for damage of strong wind and tidal waves. Against tidal waves village of the reclaimed land along the shore was located on high land, and against that village in coastal plain was located on gentle slope or the back side of sand dune. In the front of these villages was made ‘floodbreak forest’. Landscape of these villages was influenced by the Korean climatic condition.