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The time, yield, and related genes expression of PHB accumulation of Acidiphilium cryptum DX1-1 were investigated under four different initial C/N ratios, 1.2, 2.4, 7.5, and 24. The results of time and yield of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)accumulation show that the initial C/N ratio of 2.4 was optimum for strain DX1-1 to accumulate PHB, but both higher and lower initial C/N ratios did not favor that process. Based on the genome of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, 13 PHB accumulation related genes in strain JF-5 were chosen and successfully cloned from strain DX1-1. The differential expressions of the 13 functional genes, in different C/N ratios as cited above, were then studied by real-time PCR. The results show that all the 13 genes were most upregulated when the initial C/N ratio was 2.4, and among which the gene Acry_3030 encoding poly-β-hydroxybutyrate polymerase and Acry_0626 encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase were much more upregulated than the other genes, which proved that they play the most important role for PHB accumulation, and acetate is the main initial substance for PHB accumulation for strain DX1-1. Potential regulatory motifs analysis showed that the genes related to PHB accumulation are regulated by different promoters and that the motif had weak similarity to the model promoters,suggesting that PHB metabolism in Acidiphilium cryptum may be mediated by a different mechanism.