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Purpose: Recent studies have suggested that renal phosphate leakage and the associated phosphaturia are significant underlying causes of calcium urolithiasis. The aims of this study were to assess whether phosphaturia relates to urinary metabolic abnormalities and recurrent stone formation. Materials and Methods: A database of patient histories and urine chemistries was analyzed for 1,068 consecutive stone formers (SFs) and 106 normal controls. Urine values for phosphaturia that were higher than 95% of the normal control values were defined as indicating hyperphosphaturia, and the effect of phosphaturia on urinary metabolites and stone recurrence was determined. Of these patients, 247 patients (23.1%) who had been followed up for more than 36 months or had a recurrence of stones during follow-up (median, 46.0 months; range, 5-151) were included in the analyses for stone recurrence. Results: Of the SFs, 19.9% (212/1,068) had increased urinary phosphate excretion. SFs with hyperphosphaturia had a greater urinary volume and higher levels of calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and citrate than did SFs with normophosphaturia. A multivariate Cox regression model, stratified by stone episodes, revealed that hyperphosphaturia was an independent predictor of recurrent stone formation in first-time SFs (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.122; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.100-4.097; p=0.025). No association was detected between hyperphosphaturia and recurrent stone formation in recurrent SFs. Kaplan-Meier curves showed identical results. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that hyperphosphaturia is closely associated with urinary metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, hyperphosphaturia is a significant risk factor for stone recurrence in first-time SFs.