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This research is to study the themes of Korean folktale <A virtuous woman 열녀> and Shakespeare's <Measure for Measure> by the comparative method. As the result of this study, It appears they have the same dramatic complications as the woman character falls into an ethical dilemma that she should commit adultery to save her husband(or brother)'s life. But according as their different decisions, the dramatic situations have spread differently. In <Measure for Measure>, Isabella refused any self-sacrifice and she saved nobody. by contrast, the heroine of <A virtuous woman 열녀> was willingly to save her husband at a sacrifice of her chastity and even her life, finally she could save the lives of her husband and her own, furthermore reclaimed the wicked dominator So I also find that <A virtuous woman 열녀> differs with <Measure for Measure> on the thematic point of view. <Measure for Measure> sardonically revealed the hypocrisy in man's interior. On the contrary, <A virtuous woman 열녀> shows the Christian altruistic love and optimistic view of life that a virtuous person's self-sacrifice can save the world and change any wicked persons.