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The ivory color of zirconium oxide, which is similar to the color of natural teeth, makes it useful in esthetically important areas of the oral cavity, and its high biocompatibility with reduced bacterial adhesion and flexural strength render it an excellent material for implant abutments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells on zirconium oxide surfaces using cDNA microarrays. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were harvested and cultured on (1) grade 4 titanium disc (control group) and (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (experimental group). cDNA microarrays were used to monitor expression of 21575 genes in both control and experimental groups. Cell proliferation activity was evaluated through MTT assay and SEM was used to visualize the progression of osteoblast culture. ALP activity was also measured to evaluate cell differentiation rates. The optical densities of blue formazan produced by bone marrow stromal cells on titanium and zirconia surfaces were not significantly different in the results of MTT assays. SEM examination revealed that cells were well spread and attached on both surfaces. Cells cultured on titanium and zirconia showed similar ALP activities, while cDNA microarrays indicated that the expression profiles of cells in control and experimental groups were similar. Zirconia proved comparable to titanium in terms of biological response and as a substrate for the growth of bone marrow stromal cells.